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ACA四级白水皮艇技术课程范本中英文对照

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发表于 2016-6-13 20:26:03 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
Course Overview: The Whitewater Kayaking course is a program emphasizing safety,enjoyment and skill acquisition for entry-level through intermediateindividuals in public, private and commercial settings.
概述:本课程适合入门到中级水平的个人,重点是安全,享受与技术学习,场所可以是公共的,私人或商业的。

Essential Eligibility Criteria (EEC):
基本资格标准(EEC):
ACA coursesare open to all individuals who acknowledge the ability to perform thefollowing essential eligibility criteria.
ACA的课程对所有具备以下基本资格条件的个人开放:
  • Breatheindependently (i.e., not require medical devices to sustain breathing)
    能自主呼吸(即不用医疗设备来保持呼吸)
  • Independentlymaintain sealed airway passages while under water
    在水下能自主地闭气
  • Independentlyhold head upright without neck / head support
    不用头颈支撑物能自主保持头部直立
  • Managepersonal care independently or with assistance of a companion
    生活能自理,或在同伴帮助下自理
  • Managepersonal mobility independently or with a reasonable amount of assistance
    能独立自主行动,或只需少许帮助能自主行动
  • Followinstructions and effectively communicate independently or with assistance of acompanion
    能听讲,且能自主沟通,或在同帮助下能沟通
  • Independentlyturn from face-down to face-up and remain floating face up while wearing aproperly fitted life jacket*
    在穿着合适救生衣的情况下能自主由脸朝下转向脸朝上并保持脸朝上浮起姿态*
  • Getin / out of a paddlecraft independently or with a reasonable amount ofassistance*
    能自主进出艇只,或只需要少许帮助*
  • Independentlyget out and from under a capsized paddlecraft*
    能自主从倾覆的艇只里出来*
  • Reenterthe paddlecraft following deep water capsize independently or with a reasonableamount of assistance*
    深水区域翻艇后能自主重新进入,或只需少许帮助*
  • Maintaina safe body position while attempting skills, activities and rescues listed inthe appropriate Course Outline, and have the ability to recognize and identifyto others when such efforts would be unsafe given your personal situation*
    在尝试适用课程大纲所列的技术,活动和救援时能保持安全的身体姿态,并且根据自身身体条件能判断出哪些尝试对自己不安全,并能向别人指出*

* Toparticipate in adaptive programs, participants must acknowledge only the firstsix EEC listed above. Entry-level adaptive programs will involve teaching andpracticing EEC #7-11.
*对于参加残障课程的人士,只需要满足上列前6EEC。入门级别的残障课程会涉及EEC#7-11的教学和练习。


Course Prerequisites: None
课程前提条件:


Instructors: ACA Level 4: Whitewater KayakInstructor (or higher)
指导员:ACA四级:白水皮艇(或更高级别)


Course Duration: 16 hours (Instructors may adjust thecourse at their discretion.)
培训时间:16小时(指导员可根据情况调整)


Course Location / Venue: Course may be conducted on sectionsof rivers rated up to class II-III
课程地点/场地:课程可以在最高II-III级的河段上开展



Class Ratio: 5 students : 1 Instructor; with anadditional instructor or qualified assistant the ratio can be 10 : 2
班级比例:5学生:1指导员;多一个指导员或一个合格的助手,比例可以是102


Succeeding courses:
Level 5:Advanced Whitewater Kayaking
后续课程:
5级:高级白水皮艇

Thefollowing is a general summary of course content for the Whitewater Kayakingcourse. The content covered and sequence of instruction should be adjusted tobest fit the participant’s needs, class location and time allowance.
以下是本白水皮艇课程内容的概要。涵盖的内容与教学的顺序应根据参与者的需求,上课的地点,和可利用的时间来调整。

Course Content
课程内容


Introduction,Expectations, & Logistics:
介绍,期望值,和后勤
  • Welcome,introductions, paperwork
    欢迎,介绍,签署文件
  • Student& instructor course expectations and limitations
    学员以及指导员的课程期望和限制条件
  • Courseitinerary & site logistics
    课程安排和场地后勤
  • Reviewwaiver, assumption of risk, challenge by choice, medical disclosure
    重温免责条款,宣示风险,可选的挑战性,医疗信息披露
  • Aboutthe ACA
    ACA介绍
  • PFDpolicy (always wear on water)
    救生衣政策(水上一直穿着救生衣)
  • Appropriatepersonal behavior
    恰当的个人行为

o  Noalcohol / substance abuse
禁止酗酒和吸毒
o  Properetiquette on & off the water
水上和水下适宜的礼节
o  Respectprivate property
尊重私人领地
o  PracticeLeave No Trace ethics
实行“不留痕迹”伦理


The Paddling Environment:
划艇环境:
  • Wind

  • Waves

  • Weather
    天气
  • Water




Personal Preparation:
个人准备:
·        Personalability
  个人能力
·        Swimmingability
  游泳能力
·        Watercomfort & confidence
  水上舒适和自信
·        Fitness,conditioning, and warm up
  身体素质,训练,和热身
·        Safepaddle and boat handling
  安全的划行和艇只处理
·        Safetyand rescue considerations
  安全和救援考虑
·        Personalequipment (reviewed by Instructor)
  个人装备(由指导员检查)


Water Comfort
水上舒适性
·        Launching, carries, landing
  出水,抬艇,靠岸
·        Water confidence and comfort
  水上自信和舒适
·        Wet exits
  湿脱逃
·        How to empty a kayak
  怎样倒空艇里的水
·        Rescue Priorities: People, gear, & boats
  救援优先级别:人,装备,和艇


The Terminology of Paddling
(Frequently blended in with strokeinstruction)
划艇术语
(经常和法教学混合)
·        Typesof strokes: power, turning & bracing
  桨法的种类:前进,拐弯和支撑
·        Strokecomponents: catch, propulsion, recovery, control and correction
  桨法的组成部分:抓水,发力,复位,控制和修正
·        EffectiveBody Usage and Bio-Kinetics
  有效的身体使用和生物动力学
·        Useof larger torso muscles
  躯干大块肌肉的使用
·        Armsas struts connecting paddle to torso
  手臂作为连接桨和躯干的连杆
·        Avoidanceof positions that contribute to shoulder injury or dislocations
  避免可导致肩膀损伤和脱臼的身体姿态

Getting Started:
开始:
·        Launching,carries, landing
  出水,抬艇,靠岸
·        Waterconfidence and comfort
  水上自信和舒适
·        RescuePriorities: People, gear, & boats
  救援优先级别:人,装备,和艇
·        TheTerminology of Paddling (frequently blended in with stroke instruction)
  划艇术语(经常和桨法教学混合)
·        Typesof strokes: power, turning & bracing
  桨法的种类:前进,拐弯和支撑
·        Strokecomponents: catch, propulsion, recovery, control and correction
  桨法的组成部分:抓水,发力,复位,控制和修正
·        EffectiveBody Usage and Bio-Kinetics
  有效的身体使用和生物动力学
·        Useof larger torso muscles
  躯干大块肌肉的使用
·        Armsas struts connecting paddle to torso
  手臂作为连杆将桨连到躯干
·        Avoidanceof positions that contribute to shoulder injury or dislocations
  避免可导致肩膀损伤和脱臼的身体姿态


Equipment
装备
·        Kayak:types, materials, flotation, parts (including safety features: walls, footbraces, grab loops)
  皮艇:种类,材料,浮力,部件(包括安全特性:艇壁,脚垫,抓手拉环)
·        Kayakoutfitting: comfort & safety; back rests, hip pads
  皮艇调整:舒适性和安全;靠背,髋垫
·        Paddle:types, parts, length, blade size & shape, fitting, hand position
  桨:种类,部件,长度,桨叶尺寸和形状,
·        Sprayskirts: types & material, grab loop!
  挡水裙:种类和材料,抓手拉环
·        Careof equipment
  装备保管
·        PersonalEquipment: water, food, shoes, sunscreen, bug spray, sun glasses, eyeglassstraps, protective clothing for heat or cold, sponge, hat, foot protection,food, bailer, whistle
  个人装备:水,食物,鞋,防晒霜,防蚊喷剂,墨镜,眼镜绳,防晒和防寒衣服,海绵,帽子,足部保护物品,舀水筒,口哨
·        Cartopping: Loading and unloading, racks, tie down
  车顶:装车和卸车,车顶架,绑紧


Required Equipment Topics
必须讲的装备题目
·        Lifejackets (PFDs): types, fit
  救生衣(PFD):种类,调节
·        Helmet:types, fit
  头盔:种类,调节


Rescue
救援
·        Principlesof Rescue
  救援的概念
·        Priorities- People, Boats, Gear
  优先级别
·        Responsibilitiesof Victim
  被救者的责任
·        Responsibilitiesof Rescuers
  施救者的责任
·        Typesof Rescue
  救援的种类
·        Self-Rescuein moving current (REQUIRED)
  流水中自救(必须的)
·        body/boatpositions
  身体和艇只的姿态
·        handlingequipment
  装备的处置
·        Boat-AssistedRescue
  利用艇的救援
·        TiredSwimmer
  疲劳的游泳者
·        Towing
  拖拽
·        Bumping
  冲艇
·        ShorelineRescue - Extension Rescues
  岸基救援扩展救援
·        Useof Throw Bags/Ropes
  绳包的使用
·        PinnedCraft
  被别住的艇只
·        IntroduceACA River Rescue Course
  介绍ACA的救援课程
·        Needto take a First Aid and CPR course
  需要上急救和心肺复苏(CPR)课程


Maneuvers (Practiced on Flatwater)
机动(在平水里练习)
·        Spins(onside and offside): boat pivots in place
  水平转(正手和反手):艇只原地轴转
·        Forward:boat moves in reasonably straight line
  前进:艇只大致沿直线移动
·        Reverse:boat moves in a reasonably straight line
  倒退:艇只艇只大致沿直线移动
·        Stopping:boat stops within a reasonable distance
  停止:艇只在一定距离内停止
·        Turns:boat turns in broad arc made while underway
  拐弯:艇只在前进中沿大弧线拐弯
·        Veering,Carving, and paddling the “inside circle”
  偏移,走刃,和划“内圆”
·        Abeam:boat moves sideways without headway
  横移:艇只横向移动,没有纵向上的移动
·        Sideslips:boat moves sideways with headway
  侧滑:艇只横向移动,同时有纵向上的移动


Strokes Required
必学的桨法
·        ForwardSweep (anticipatory and reactive techniques)
  前扫桨(预期的和反应的技术)
·        ReverseSweep
  倒扫桨
·        SternDraw
  艇尾拉桨
·        SideDraw
  侧拉桨
·        Forward
  前进桨
·        Back
  倒退桨
·        T(Eskimo) Rescue
     T型(爱斯基摩)救援
·        HighBrace
  高位支撑
·        LowBrace
  低位支撑
·        BowDraw and Duffek
  艇头拉桨和杜氏拉桨
·        StationaryDraw
  静止拉桨
·        ScullingDraw
  摇桨


Optional at instructors’ discretion
指导员决定的可选项
·        Roll
  翻滚


River Reading
读河


Fundamentals of River Currents
河中水流的基础
·        Currentspeed, direction and changes caused by streambed features
  水流速度,方向及其随河床特性改变产生的变化
·        Downstreamand Upstream V's / Chutes
  朝下游的和朝上游的“V”口/流槽
·        Eddies/Eddy Lines
  洄水/洄水线
·        Waves/Wave Holes
  浪/浪型水洞
·        Insideand Outside Bends
  弯道内侧和外侧
·        Effectsof Obstacles
  障碍物的影响
·        Ledges/Horizon Lines
  长条礁/水平线
·        Strainers& Sieves
  卡子和筛子
·        Rocks/Pillows
  礁石/枕头
·        Holes/Hydraulics
  水洞
·        OtherHazards
  别的风险
·        Powerof the Current / River Level
  水流的力量/河流水位
·        ColdWater
  冷水
·        Dams/Flow Diversion Structures/ Pipelines
  水坝/分流建筑物/管线
·        UndercutRocks / Ice
  下空的岩石/
·        InternationalScale of River Difficulty (handout: American Whitewater Safety Code)
  国际河流难度分级标准(分发:美国白水安全守则)


Whitewater Practice
白水练习
·        Ferries
  摆渡
·        EddyTurns
  洄水拐弯
·        Peelouts
  出洄水
o  Wide(exit wide from eddy line)
  广式(离洄水线很远出来)
o  Shallow(exit close to eddy line)
  浅式(靠近洄水线出来)
·        Sequencesof Maneuvers
  连续机动
o  C-turns(Peel out and eddy into same eddy)
“C”形拐弯(出和进同一个洄水)
o  S-turns(Peel out one side and eddy into opposite side)
“S”形拐弯(从一边的洄水出,出别一边的洄水进)
·        Surfing
  冲浪


River Running
漂河
·        Strategiesin running rivers
  漂河策略
·        Howto paddle in current
  怎么在流水中划桨
·        Spacing/Avoid "tunnel vision"
  间距/避免“隧道效应”
·        Scoutingand rapid analysis scenarios
  察看和激流分析场景
·        Fromboat/ From shore
  从艇上/从岸上
·        Howto establish the "best" route/ “Plan "B"
  怎样选取“最佳”路线/备用方案
·        Portaginghazards
  抬船绕过有风险的地方
·        Grouporganization on the river
  河上的团队组织
·        Groupcohesiveness (lead, sweep boats, etc.)
  团队合作(领头艇,收队艇,等等)
·        Universalriver signals
  通用河流信号
·        EmergencyProcedures
  紧急程序


Individual Development
个人发展


Judgment
判断
In additionto learning hard skills, the importance of devloping personal judgment andgroup responsibility increases on more difficult paddling venues.
除了学习硬技术,发展个人判断能力的重要性和在难度更大的场所中团体责任增加。


Self Awareness
自我意识
·        Understandingyour level of anxiety
  了解你的焦虑程度
·        Understandingyour personal style and risk tolerance
  了解你的个人类型和风险承受能力
·        Responsibilityto the group
  对团队的责任
·        Riverand group awareness
  河流和团队意识
·        RapidAnalysis Scenarios
  激流分析场景


Self Evaluation
自我评估
·        Whatmoves are required to successfully run the rapid?
  下这个滩哪些动作是必须的?
·        CanI perform the required moves?
  我能完成这些必须的动作吗?
·        Whatare the consequences of missing the required moves?
  这些必须的动作没做到有什么后果?
·        AmI willing to accept these consequences?
  我能接受这些后果吗?
·        Whatif?
  假如那样又如何?
·        Rescueconsiderations
  救援考虑


Group Evaluation Skill level of the group
团队评估团队的技术水平
·        Sizeof the group Group consequences
  团队大小,团队后果
·        Conditionof the group
  团队的状况
·        Continuelearning process from more experienced paddlers
  向有经验的桨手不断学习的过程
·        Responsibilityto support other padders (no peer pressure)
  支持别的桨手的责任(不要有同伴压力)
·        GroupEquipment: extra paddle, rescue sling, drybags, maps, first aid kit andlocation, rescue gear
  团队装备:备用桨,救援吊绳,防水袋,地图,急救套件和地点,救援装备
·        Guidebooks/ Local Knowledge
  导游手册/ 当地知识
·        AssessingCurrent Environmental Conditions (including: Water, Weather, Time of Day, andTemperature, Limited Access: Canyons, Cliffs, Remote Area)
  当前环境状况评估(包括:水,气象,时间,温度,进出限制:峡谷,悬崖,偏远地区)
·        AssessingPersonal and Group Dynamics (Skills, Equipment, Group Makeup, Mental Status,Logistics, group selection, leadership)
  个人和团队互动评估(技术,装备,团队组成,精神状态,后勤,团队选择,领导能力)


Conclusion & Wrap Up:
结论和结语:
·        Groupdebrief / Individual feedback
  团队汇报/ 个人反馈
·        Courselimitations
  课程限制
·        Importanceof First Aid & CPR
  急救和CPR的重要性
·        Importanceof additional instruction, practice, experience
  额外的指导,练习,经验的重要性
·        Importanceof appropriate level of safety & rescue training
  合适的安全和救援训练的重要性
·        Demoadvanced maneuvers
  演示高级机动
·        Lifesport / Paddling options
  生活运动/划艇的选择
·        Localpaddling groups / Clubs
  当地的划船团体/俱乐部
·        Handouts/ Reference materials
  分发资料/ 参考资料
·        ACAMembership forms
     ACA会员表
·        Courseevaluation
  课程考评
·        Participationcards
  参加卡

                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
加拿大百途RIOT顶级海洋舟
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不错啊! 一个字牛啊!
加拿大百途RIOT顶级海洋舟
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找盛大点券交易平台?就上谷谷交易平台
加拿大百途RIOT顶级海洋舟
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谷gu交易 ... 正在出售中的!
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