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ACA三级:河流皮艇(技术课程范本)中英文对照

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发表于 2016-6-13 20:24:03 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
                                                Course Overview: The River Kayaking course is a program emphasizing safety, enjoymentand skill acquisition for entry-level through intermediate individuals inpublic, private and commercial settings.


概述:本课程适合入门到中级水平的个人,重点是安全,享受与技术学习,场所可以是公共的,私人或商业的。

Goals:
目标:
·        Safety:To safely paddle on whitewater, perform self rescue and respond to emergenciesthat arise.

安全:安全划白水,进行自我救援,处置突发紧急事件

·        Enjoyment:To become aware of paddling opportunities and the rewards of lifetimeparticipation in paddling.

享受:开始意识到划船机会和毕生参与这个运动带来的好处

·        Skills:To acquire the skills to safely and enjoyably paddle a kayak on whitewater.

技术:获得能安全且享受地在白水中划艇的技术



Essential Eligibility Criteria (EEC):
基本资格标准(EEC):
ACA coursesare open to all individuals who acknowledge the ability to perform thefollowing essential eligibility criteria.
ACA的课程对所有具备以下基本资格条件的个人开放:


1.     Breatheindependently (i.e., not require medical devices to sustain breathing)

能自主呼吸(即不用医疗设备来保持呼吸)



2.     Independentlymaintain sealed airway passages while under water

在水下能自主地闭气



3.     Independentlyhold head upright without neck / head support

不用头颈支撑物能自主保持头部直立



4.     Managepersonal care independently or with assistance of a companion

生活能自理,或在同伴帮助下自理



5.     Managepersonal mobility independently or with a reasonable amount of assistance

能独立自主行动,或只需少许帮助能自主行动



6.     Followinstructions and effectively communicate independently or with assistance of acompanion

能听讲,且能自主沟通,或在同帮助下能沟通



7.     Independentlyturn from face-down to face-up and remain floating face up while wearing aproperly fitted life jacket*

在穿着合适救生衣的情况下能自主由脸朝下转向脸朝上并保持脸朝上浮起姿态*



8.     Getin / out of a paddlecraft independently or with a reasonable amount ofassistance*

能自主进出艇只,或只需要少许帮助*



9.     Independentlyget out and from under a capsized paddlecraft*

能自主从倾覆的艇只里出来*



10. Reenterthe paddlecraft following deep water capsize independently or with a reasonableamount of assistance*

深水区域翻艇后能自主重新进入,或只需少许帮助*



11. Maintaina safe body position while attempting skills, activities and rescues listed inthe appropriate Course Outline, and have the ability to recognize and identifyto others when such efforts would be unsafe given your personal situation*

在尝试适用课程大纲所列的技术,活动和救援时能保持安全的身体姿态,并且根据自身身体条件能判断出哪些尝试对自己不安全,并能向别人指出*



* Toparticipate in adaptive programs, participants must acknowledge only the firstsix EEC listed above. Entry-level adaptive programs will involve teaching andpracticing EEC #7-11.
*对于参加残障课程的人士,只需要满足上列前6EEC。入门级别的残障课程会涉及EEC#7-11的教学和练习。


Course Prerequisites: None
课程前提条件:


Instructors: ACA Level 3: River Kayak Instructor(or higher)
指导员:ACA三级:河流皮艇(或更高级别)


Course Duration: 8 hours (Instructors may adjust thecourse at their discretion.)
培训时间:8小时(指导员可根据情况调整)


Course Location / Venue: Course may be conducted on sections ofrivers rated up to class I-II
课程地点/场地:课程可以在最高I-II级的河段上开展


Class Ratio: 5 students : 1 Instructor; with anadditional instructor or qualified assistant the ratio can be 10 : 2
班级比例:5学生:1指导员;多一个指导员或一个合格的助手,比例可以是102


Succeeding courses:
Level 4: WhitewaterKayaking
Level 5:Advanced Whitewater Kayaking
*RiverKayaking skills are a prerequisite for successive courses.

后续课程:
4级:白水皮艇
5级:高级白水皮艇
*河流皮艇技术是后继课程的前提要求。

Thefollowing is a general summary of course content for the River Kayaking course.The content covered and sequence of instruction should be adjusted to best fitthe participant’s needs, class location and time allowance.
以下是本河流皮艇课程内容的概要。涵盖的内容与教学的顺序应根据参与者的需求,上课的地点,和可利用的时间来调整。


Course Content
课程内容


Introduction, Expectations, &Logistics:
介绍,期望值,和后勤
·        Welcome,introductions, paperwork

欢迎,介绍,签署文件

·        Student& instructor course expectations and limitations

学员以及指导员的课程期望和限制条件

·        Courseitinerary & site logistics

课程安排和场地后勤

·        Reviewwaiver, assumption of risk, challenge by choice, medical disclosure

重温免责条款,宣示风险,可选的挑战性,医疗信息披露

·        Aboutthe ACA

ACA介绍

·        PFDpolicy (always wear on water)

救生衣政策(水上一直穿着救生衣)

·        Appropriatepersonal behavior

恰当的个人行为

o  Noalcohol / substance abuse
禁止酗酒和吸毒
o  Properetiquette on & off the water
水上和水下适宜的礼节
o  Respectprivate property
尊重私人领地
o  PracticeLeave No Trace ethics
实行“不留痕迹”伦理


The Paddling Environment:
划艇环境:
·        Wind

·        Waves

·        Weather

天气

·        Water



Personal Preparation:
个人准备:
·        Personalability

个人能力

·        Swimmingability

游泳能力

·        Watercomfort & confidence

水上舒适和自信

·        Fitness,conditioning, and warm up

身体素质,训练,和热身

·        Safepaddle and boat handling

安全的和艇只拿放

·        Safetyand rescue considerations

安全和救援考虑

·        Personalequipment (reviewed by Instructor)

个人装备(由指导员检查)

·        Judgment.In addition to learning hard skills, the importance of developing personaljudgment and group responsibility increases on more difficult paddling venues.

判断。除了学习硬技术,发展个人判断能力的重要性和在难度更大的场所中团体责任增加。


Getting Started:
开始:
·        Launching,carries, landing

出水,抬艇,靠岸

·        Waterconfidence and comfort

水上自信和舒适

·        RescuePriorities: People, gear, & boats

救援优先级别:人,装备,和艇

·        Wetexits

湿脱逃

·        Howto empty a kayak

怎么控干艇

·        TheTerminology of Paddling (frequently blended in with stroke instruction)

划艇术语(经常和桨法教学混合)

·        Typesof strokes: power, turning & bracing

桨法的种类:前进,拐弯和支撑

·        Strokecomponents: catch, propulsion, recovery, control and correction

桨法的组成部分:抓水,发力,复位,控制和修正

·        EffectiveBody Usage and Bio-Kinetics

有效的身体使用和生物动力学

·        Useof larger torso muscles

躯干大块肌肉的使用

·        Armsas struts connecting paddle to torso

手臂作为连杆将桨连到躯干

·        Avoidanceof positions that contribute to shoulder injury or dislocations

避免可导致肩膀损伤和脱臼的身体姿态



River Reading
读河


Fundamentals of River Currents
河中水流的基础
·        Currentspeed, direction and changes caused by streambed features

水流速度,方向及其随河床特性改变产生的变化

·        Downstreamand Upstream V's / Chutes

朝下游的和朝上游的“V”口/流槽

·        Eddies/Eddy Lines

洄水/洄水线

·        Waves/Wave Holes

浪/浪型水洞

·        Insideand Outside Bends

弯道内侧和外侧

·        Effectsof Obstacles

障碍物的影响

·        Ledges/Horizon Lines

长条礁/水平线

·        Strainers& Sieves

卡子和筛子

·        Rocks/Pillows

礁石/枕头

·        Holes/Hydraulics

水洞

·        OtherHazards

别的风险

·        Powerof the Current / River Level

水流的力量/河流水位

·        ColdWater

冷水

·        Dams/Flow Diversion Structures/ Pipelines

水坝/分流建筑物/管线

·        UndercutRocks / Ice

下空的岩石/冰

·        InternationalScale of River Difficulty (handout: American Whitewater Safety Code)

国际河流难度分级标准(分发:美国白水安全守则)



River Running
漂河
A.     Strategiesin running rivers
    漂河策略
1.     Howto paddle in current
怎么在流水中划桨
Spacing/ Avoid"tunnel vision"
间距/避免“隧道效应”
2.     Scouting
察看
From boat/ From shore
从艇上/从岸上
How to establish the"best" route/ “Plan "B"
怎样选取“最佳”路线/备用方案
3.     Portaginghazards
抬船绕过有风险的地方
B.     Grouporganization on the river
    河上的团队组织
1.     Groupcohesiveness (lead, sweep boats, etc.)
团队合作(领头艇,收队艇,等等)
2.     Universalriver signals
通用河流信号
C.     Emergency Procedures
紧急程序


Equipment
装备
·        Kayak:types, materials, flotation, parts (including safety features: walls, footbraces, grab loops)

皮艇:种类,材料,浮力,部件(包括安全特性:艇壁,脚垫,抓手拉环)

·        Kayakoutfitting: comfort & safety; back rests, hip pads

皮艇调整:舒适性和安全;靠背,髋垫

·        Paddle:types, parts, length, blade size & shape, fitting, hand position

桨:种类,部件,长度,桨叶尺寸和形状,

·        Sprayskirts: types & material, grab loop!

挡水裙:种类和材料,抓手拉环

·        Careof equipment

装备保管

·        PersonalEquipment: water, food, shoes, sunscreen, bug spray, sun glasses, eyeglassstraps, protective clothing for heat or cold, sponge, hat, foot protection,food, bailer, whistle

个人装备:水,食物,鞋,防晒霜,防蚊喷剂,墨镜,眼镜绳,防晒和防寒衣服,海绵,帽子,足部保护物品,舀水筒,口哨

·        Cartopping: Loading and unloading, racks, tie down

车顶:装车和卸车,车顶架,绑紧

·        Lifejackets(PFD): types, fit

救生衣:类型,调整

·        Helmet:types, fit

头盔:类型,调整



Safety & Rescue
安全与救援:
A)    Principlesof Rescue
救援的概念
                1.     Priorities- People, Boats, Gear
优先级别
2.  Responsibilities of Victim
被救者的责任
3.  Responsibilities of Rescuers
施救者的责任
B)  Types of Rescue
救援的种类
                1.     Self-Rescuein moving current
                流水中自救
                body/boat positions
                身体和艇只的姿态
                handling equipment
                装备的处置
                2.  Boat-Assisted Rescue
                利用艇的救援
                Tired Swimmer
                疲劳的游泳者
                Towing
                拖拽
                Bow(eskimo) rescue
                艇头(爱斯基摩)救援
                Bumping
                冲艇
                3.  Shoreline Rescue - ExtensionRescues
                岸基救援– 扩展救援
                Use of Throw Bags/Ropes
                            绳包的使用
                Pinned Craft
                            被别住的艇只

Maneuvers
Flat-Water Practiced
机动
平水练习
·        Spins(onside and offside): boat pivots in place
    水平转(正手和反手):艇只原地轴转
·        Forward:boat moves in reasonably straight line
    前进:艇只大致沿直线移动
·        Reverse:boat moves in a reasonably straight line
    倒退:艇只艇只大致沿直线移动
·        Stopping:boat stops within a reasonable distance
    停止:艇只在一定距离内停止
·        Turns:boat turns in broad arc made while underway
    拐弯:艇只在前进中沿大弧线拐弯
·        Veering,Carving, and paddling the “inside circle”
    偏移,走刃,和划“内圆”
·        Abeam:boat moves sideways without headway
    横移:艇只横向移动,没有纵向上的移动
·        Sideslips:boat moves sideways with headway
    侧滑:艇只横向移动,同时有纵向上的移动
Strokes
桨法
·        ForwardSweep (aggressive and reactive techniques)
    前扫桨(激进的和反应的技术)
·        ReverseSweep
    倒扫桨
·        SternDraw
    艇尾拉桨
·        BowDraw
    艇头拉桨
·        Forward
    前进桨
·        Back
    倒退桨
·        Lowand High Brace
    高位和低位支撑
·        BowDraw and Duffek
    艇头拉桨和杜氏拉桨
·        StationaryDraw
    静止拉桨
·        ScullingDraw
    摇桨


Optional atinstructors’ discretionRoll (Taught by L3 instructor with Kayak Rollingendorsement or L4 or L5 Kayak Instructors)
指导员决定的可选项:翻滚(由有翻滚背书的L3指导员或者L4L5指导员教学)


Whitewater Practice
白水练习
·        Ferries
    摆渡
·        EddyTurns
    洄水拐弯
·        Peelouts
    出洄水
·        Wide(exit wide from eddy line)
广式(离洄水线很远出来)
·        Shallow(exit close to eddy line)
浅式(靠近洄水线出来)
·        Sequencesof Maneuvers
    连续机动
·        C-turns(Peel out and eddy into same eddy)
“C”形拐弯(出和进同一个洄水)
·        S-turns(Peel out one side and eddy into opposite side)
“S”形拐弯(从一边的洄水出,出别一边的洄水进)
·        Surfing
    冲浪


Conclusion & Wrap Up:
结论和结语:
·        Groupdebrief / Individual feedback
    团队汇报 / 个人反馈
·        Courselimitations
    课程限制
·        Importanceof First Aid & CPR
    急救和CPR的重要性
·        Importanceof additional instruction, practice, experience
    额外的指导,练习,经验的重要性
·        Importanceof appropriate level of safety & rescue training
    合适的安全和救援训练的重要性
·        Demoadvanced maneuvers
    演示高级机动
·        Lifesport / Paddling options
    生活运动/划艇的选择
·        Localpaddling groups / Clubs
    当地的划船团体/俱乐部
·        Handouts/ Reference materials
    分发资料 / 参考资料
·        ACAMembership forms
               ACA会员表
·        Courseevaluation
    课程考评
·        Participationcards
    参加卡

                    
                                                                                                                                                                                                        
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发表于 2016-10-24 19:00:44 | 显示全部楼层
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