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拉勾皮划艇商城基础教程之;白水艇安全指南(二 )必看

发表于 2012-6-6 22:04:44 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式

 III. Group Preparedness and Responsibility


1.Organization. A river trip should be regarded as a common adventure by all participants, except on uctional or commercially guided trips as defined below. Participants share the responsibility for the conduct of the trip, and each participant is individually responsible for judging his or her own capabilities and for his or her own safety as the trip progresses. Participants are encouraged (but are not obligated) to offer advice and guidance for the independent consideration and judgment of others.

2.River Conditions. The group should have a reasonable knowledge of the difficulty of the run. Participants should evaluate this information and adjust their plans accordingly. If the run is exploratory or no one is familiar with the river, maps and guidebooks, if available, should be examined. The group should secure accurate flow information; the more difficult the run, the more important this will be. Be aware of possible changes in river level and how this will affect the difficulty of the run. If the trip involves tidal stretches, secure appropriate information on tides.

3.Group equipment should be suited to the difficulty of the river. The group should always have a throw-line available, and one line per boat is recommended on difficult runs. The list may include: carabiners, prussic loops, first aid kit, flashlight, folding saw, fire starter, guidebooks, maps, food, extra clothing, and any other rescue or survival items suggested by conditions. Each item is not required on every run, and this list is not meant to be a substitute for good judgment.
3.团队的装备必需适合困难的河流。团队必需总是备有可用的抛绳,在困难的行程中,建议每艇一条绳。装备清单包括: 快挂,prussic结(要了解何谓prussic loop请参考以下网站:http://www.planetfear.com/article_detail.asp?a_id=511),医疗药箱,闪光灯,可折叠的锯,点火装备,指南,地图,食物,额外的衣物。条件许可的话,带上任何其他救援或者生存物资。每一项物品并非每一次旅程上都需要,但并不意味着可以以好的判断来代替它们。

4.Keep the group compact, but maintain sufficient spacing to avoid collisions. If the group is large, consider dividing into smaller groups or using the “buddy system” as an additional safeguard. Space yourselves closely enough to permit good communication, but not so close as to interfere with one another in rapids.
I.A point paddler sets the pace. When in front, do not get in over your head. Never run drops when you cannot see a clear route to the bottom or, for advanced paddlers, a sure route to the next eddy. When in doubt, stop and scout.
II.Keep track of all group members. Each boat keeps the one behind it in sight, stopping if necessary. Know how many people are in your group and take head-counts regularly. No one should paddle ahead or walk out without first informing the group. Paddlers requiring additional support should stay at the center of a group, and not allow themselves to lag behind in the more difficult rapids. If the group is large and contains a wide range of abilities, a “sweep boat” may be designated to bring up the rear.
Courtesy. On heavily used rivers, do not cut in front of a boater running a drop. Always look upstream before leaving eddies to run or play. Never enter a III.crowded drop or eddy when no room for you exists. Passing other groups in a rapid may be hazardous; it’s often safer to wait upstream until the group ahead has passed.




5.Float Plan. If the trip is into a wilderness area or for an extended period, plans should be filed with a nsible person who will contact the authorities if you are overdue. It may be wise to establish checkpoints along the way where civilization could be contacted if necessary. Knowing the location of possible help and planning escape routes can speed rescue.

6.Drugs. The use of alcohol or mind-altering drugs before or during river trips is not recommended. It dulls reflexes, reduces decision-making ability, and may interfere with important survival reflexes.

7.Instructional or commercially guided trips. In contrast to the common adventure trip format, in these trip formats, a boating instructor or commercial guide assumes some of the responsibilities normally exercised by the group as a whole, as appropriate under the circumstances. These formats recognize that instructional or commercially guided trips may involve participants who lack significant experience in whitewater. However, as a participant acquires experience in whitewater, he or she takes on increasing responsibility for his or her own safety, in accordance with what he or she knows or should know as a result of that increased experience. Also, as in all trip formats, every participant must realize and assume the risks associated with the serious hazards of whitewater rivers.

8.It is advisable for instructors and commercial guides or their employers to acquire trip or personal liability insurance:
I.An “instructional trip” is characterized by a clear teacher/pupil relationship, where the primary purpose of the trip is to teach boating skills, and which is conducted for a fee.
II.A “commercially guided trip” is characterized by a licensed, professional guide conducting trips for a fee.


IV.Universal River Signals 

These signals may be substituted with an alternate set of signals agreed upon by the group. 

Stop: Potential Hazard Ahead. Wait for “all clear” signal before proceeding, or scout ahead. form a horizontal bar with your outstretched arms. Those seeing the signal should pass it back to others in the party. - 

Help/Emergency: Assist the signaler as quickly as possible. Give three long blasts on a police whistle while waving a paddle, helmet or life vest over your head. If a whistle is not available, use the visual signal alone. A whistle is best carried on a lanyard attached to your life vest. 


All Clear 
All Clear: Come ahead (in the absence of other directions proceed down the center). Form a vertical bar with your paddle or one arm held high above your head. Paddle blade should be turned flat for maximum visibility. To signal direction or a preferred course through a rapid around obstruction, lower the previously vertical “all clear” by 45 degrees toward the side of the river with the preferred route. Never point toward the obstacle you wish to avoid. 


I’m okay 
I’m okay: I’m okay and not hurt. While holding the elbow outward toward the side, repeatedly pat the top of your head. 

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